Hargobind Khorana was born on January 9th 1922 in a Hindu family in a little village called
Khorana lived in
Hargobind held fellowships and professorships in
Khorana shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1968 with Marshall W. Nierenberg and Robert W. Holley for research that helped to show how the genetic components of the cell nucleus control the synthesis of proteins. Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code and Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first RNA molecule. Khorana made a contribution to genetics in 1970. In 1976 Khorana lead the team that first synthesized a biologically active gene.Dr. Khorana’s invention of oligonucleotides has become indispensable tools in biotechnology. Khorana is a person with an extraordinary sense of perseverance and uncommon vision.
COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
- What kind of a job did Khorana’s father hold ?
Khorana’s father was a parwari, a village agricultural taxation clerk in the British Indian system of government.
- What was his attitude to his children’s education ?
Although the family was poor, Khorana’s afther was determined to educate his children and they were actually the only literate family in their village inhabited by about 100 people.
- How did the government of
help Hargobind in his studies ? India
- Where and what did Hargobind study after he obtained a fellowship ?
Hargobind studied Ph.D. Degree at the
- What was the role of Dr.Gordon M.Shrum of
in Khorana’s career ? British Columbia
Dr.Godrdan M.Shrum of
- Who are the other two significant people Khorana met in
The other two significant people Khorana met in
- What did Khorana achieve in the early 1960’s ?
In the 1960s Khorana corroborated that the way the four different types of nucleotides are arranged on the spiral “staircase” of the DNA molecule determines the chemical composition and function of a new cell.
- Who did Khorana share the 1968 Nobel prize in Physiology/Medicine with and with what was their work concerned ?
Khorana shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1968 with Marshall W. Nierenberg and Robert W. Holley for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.
- What were Khorana’s achievements during the 1970’s ?
Khorana made a contribution to genetics in 1970, when he and his research team were able to synthesize the first artificial copy of yeast gene.
- What kind of a role did Khorana’s wife Esther Elizabeth Sibler play in his career ?
Khorana’s wife Esther Elizabeth Sibler greatly strengthened his sense of purpose. This is especially true in his life during the time when, after six years’ absence from the country of his birth, Khorana felt out of place everywhere and at home nowhere.
- Hargobind Khorana was borin on January 9th,1922 in a little village called
Raipurin Punjab in British India
- Khorana’s father was a Patwari – a village agricultural taxation clerk
- Hargogind Khorana studied at
D.A.V High Schoolin Multan(now in ) Pakistan
- Khorana studied at
Punjab Universityin and obtained M.Sc. degree Lahore
- Hargobind was influenced by Ratan Lal and Mr. Mahan Singh at School and University respectively.
- Government of Indian Fellowship threw Khorana an opportunity to go to
- Khorana Studied Ph.D at the
- Khorana spent a year (1948-1949) at the Eidgenossische Technische Hoschschule in
with Professor Vladimit Prelog Zurich
- Khorana obtained a fellowship in
to work with Dr.G. W. Kenner and Professor A.R.Todd England
- At the
, Khorana began research on nucleic acids under Sir Alexander Todd Universityof Cambridge
- Hargobind was offered a job in 1952 by Dr. Gordon M. Shrum of
British Columbiaat Vancouver
- Hargobind held fellowships and professorships in
Switzerlandat the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and Universities of British Columbia and Wisconsin
- In 1960 Khorana joined the Institute for Enzyme Research at the
- Khorana shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1968 with Marshall W.Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley
- The research which brought the Nobel Prize was their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.
- Khorana’s role was to design the methods that led to the synthesis of well-defined acids, ultimately leading to the solution of the genetic code
- Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code and Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first RNA molecule
- Marshall Nirenberg 1927 was born in
. New York City
- Nirenberg passed out from the
with Bachelor of Science degree Universityof Florida
- Nirenberg acquired a Master’s degree in Zoology from
- Nirenberg completed his Ph.D at
in 1957 on sugar transport in tumor cells Universityof Michigan
- Khorana made his contribution to genetics in 1970, when he and his team were able to synthesize the first artificial copy of a yeast gene
- Khorana joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institutes of Technology as Alfred P. Solan Professor of Biology and Chemistry in 1971
- Khorana subsequently became a naturalized citizen of the
- Hargobind Khorana married in 1952 to Esthre Elizabeth Sibler of Swiss origin
- Julia Elizabeth (May 4th 1953) Emily Anne (October 18th 1954) and Dave Roy (July 26th 1958) were the children of Khorana
- Dr. Khorana was also the pioneering scientist to synthesize oligonucleotides, that is, strings of nucleotides
- Dr. Khorana’s invention of oligonucleotides has become indispensable tools in biotechnology